Modelling Canopy Temperature of Crops With Heterogeneous Canopies Grown Under Solar Panels




Dynamic Agrivoltaic System, Crop Protection, PV Steering Policies


With global warming and the increase of heatwaves frequencies, it has become urgent to protect crops. Agrivoltaic systems tackle this issue by shading plants with photovoltaic panels to lower the temperature of canopies. However, a permanent shading would lead to an important loss of carbon for plants. For this reason, dynamic agrivoltaic systems (AVD) emerged with panels which could be steered in real time according to the needs of plants. Shading at the right time is not that easy with the risk to either miss a hot event and cause serious and irreversible injuries to the plants or shade too often, and impact carbon production. In this paper we present first an experiment with measurements of leaf temperature at different positions of grapevine canopy for two summer days in 2020 and 2021. Then, the energy balance sub-model part of a crop model that simulate plant growth for fruit trees and vines grown in heterogeneous AVD environments is presented. Finally, after having evaluated the coherence of the model with experimental results, the relevance of a mechanistic model to steer solar panels and protect plants from heat is illustrated through several examples. The heterogeneity of temperature within the canopy observed in the field experiments related with different variables such as air and ground temperature, leaf orientation and self-shading was correctly reproduced by the model. This work indicated that canopy temperature could be more integrative than a unique threshold of air temperature to take decisions on panel orientation to protect plants from heat stress.


Download data is not yet available.


IPCC, 2022: Climate Change 2022: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [H.-O. Pörtner, D.C. Roberts, M. Tignor, E.S. Poloczanska, K. Mintenbeck, A. Alegría, M. Craig, S. Langsdorf, S. Löschke, V. Möller, A. Okem, B. Rama (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press. In Press.

X. Luan, and G. Vico, “Canopy temperature and heat stress are increased by compound high air temperature and water stress and reduced by irrigation – a modeling analysis”, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., vol.25, no.3, pp.1411–1423, Mar. 2021, doi:

H.B. Luo, L. Ma, H.-F. Xi, W. Duan, S.-H. Li, W. Loescher, J.-F. Wang, and L.-J. Wang. “Photosynthetic Responses to Heat Treatments at Different Temperatures and Following Recovery in Grapevine (Vitis Amurensis L.) Leaves“, PLoS ONE vol.6, no.8, Aug. 2011, doi:

C.C. Nievola, C.P. Carvalho, V. Carvalho, and E. Rodrigues, “Rapid responses of plants to temperature changes. Temperature“ (Austin), vol.4, no. 4, pp.371-405 Nov. 2017, doi:

C. Toledo and A. Scognamiglio, “Agrivoltaic systems design and assessment: a critical review, and a descriptive model towards a sustainable landscape vision (three-dimensional agrivoltaic patterns)”, Sustainability, vol.13, no.12, June 2021, doi:

A. Weselk, A. Ehmann, S. Zikeli, I. Lewandowski, S. Schindele, and P. Hög, “Agrophotovoltaic systems: applications, challenges, and opportunities. A review“, Agron. Sustain. Dev., vol. 39, no.4, Aug. 2019, doi:

A. Feuerbacher, A., T. Herrmann, S. Neuenfeldt, M. Laub, A. Gocht, “The economics and adoption potential of agrivoltaics using a farm-level bottom-up approach“, Jul. 2022, doi:

S. N. Bhandari, S. Schlüter, W. Kuckshinrichs, H. Schlör, R. Adamou, and R. Bhandari, “Economic Feasibility of Agrivoltaic Systems in Food-Energy Nexus Context: Modelling and a Case Study in Niger”, Agronomy, vol.11, no.10, Sept. 2021, doi:

M. Laub, L. Pataczek, A. Feuerbacher, S. Zikeli, and P. Högy. “Contrasting Yield Responses at Varying Levels of Shade Suggest Different Suitability of Crops for Dual Land-Use Systems: A Meta-Analysis”, Agron. Sustain. Dev., vol.42, no.3, June 2022, doi:

Y. Elamri, B. Cheviron, J.-M. Lopez, C. Dejean, and G. Belaud, “Water Budget and Crop Modelling for Agrivoltaic Systems: Application to Irrigated Lettuces”, Agric. Water Manag., vol.208, pp.440-453, Sept. 2018, doi:

B. Valle, T. Simonneau, F. Sourd, P. Pechier, P. Hamard, T. Frisson, M. Ryckewaert, et A. Christophe, “Increasing the Total Productivity of a Land by Combining Mobile Photovoltaic Panels and Food Crops”, Appl. Energy, vol.206, pp.1495 1507, Nov. 2017, doi:

G.A. Barron-Gafford, M.A. Pavao-Zuckerman, R.L. Minor. L.F. Sutter, I. Barnett-Moreno, D.T. Blackett, M. Thompson, K. Dimond,A.K. Gerlak, G.P. Nabhan and J.E. Macknick, “Agrivoltaics provide mutual benefits across the food–energy–water nexus in drylands”, Nat. Sustain., vol.2, no. 9, pp. 848–855, Sept. 2019, doi:

F.H. Yang, D.R. Bryla, and R. T. Peters, “An Energy Balance Model for Predicting Berry Temperature and Scheduling Sprinklers for Cooling in Northern Highbush Blueberry“, HortScience, vol.56, no.4, pp.447 53, Feb. 2021, doi:

J. Chopard, A. Bisson, G. Lopez, S. Persello, C. Richert, and D. Fumey, “Development of a decision support system to evaluate crop performance under dynamic solar panels” in Agrivoltaics2020 Conference: Launching Agrivoltaics World-Wide (AIP Publishing), 050001. Perpignan, France, Online 2021, doi:

H. Webber H., F. Ewert, B.A Kimball, S. Siebert, J.W. White, G.W. Wall, and T. Gaiser, “Simulating canopy temperature for modelling heat stress in cereals“, Environ. Model. Softw. vol.77, pp.143 – 155, Mar. 2016, doi:

J. M. Costa, R. Egipto, A. Sánchez-Virosta, C. M. Lopes, and M. M. Chaves, “Canopy and soil thermal patterns to support water and heat stress management in vineyards,” Agric. Water Manag., vol. 216, pp. 484–496, May 2019, doi:

H. Sinoquet, and X. Le Roux, “Short Term Interactions between Tree Foliage and the Aerial Environment: An Overview of Modelling approaches Available for Tree Structure-Function Models”, Ann. For. Sci., vol.57, no.5, pp. 477 96, June 2000, doi:

D.H. Greer, “Canopy Growth and Development Processes in Apples and Grapevines: Responses to Temperature”, In Horticultural Reviews, vol.45, Hoboken, (NJ), USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2018, ch.7, pp.313-369, doi:

M. Oliveira, J. Teles, P. Barbosa, F. Olazabal, and J. Queiroz, “Shading of the fruit zone to reduce grape yield and quality losses caused by sunburn”, OENO One, vol. 48, no. 3, Art. no. 3, Sep. 2014, doi:

A. G. Reynolds and J. E. V. Heuvel, “Influence of Grapevine Training Systems on Vine Growth and Fruit Composition: A Review,” Am J Enol Vitic., vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 251–268, Sep. 2009




How to Cite

Chopard, J., Lopez, G., Persello, S., & Fumey, D. (2024). Modelling Canopy Temperature of Crops With Heterogeneous Canopies Grown Under Solar Panels. AgriVoltaics Conference Proceedings, 1.

Conference Proceedings Volume


Agrivoltaics Systems

Funding data