Shading Effect of Transparent Photovoltaic Panels on Crops Underneath Agrivoltaic Systems




Semi-Transparent Photovoltaics, Agrovoltaics, Shading


Agrivoltaic systems combine soil-grown crops with photovoltaic (PV) panels erected several meters above the ground. Combining solar panels and food crops on the same land can maximize land utilization. Under the PV panels, however, microclimate factors like solar radiation, air temperature, humidity, and soil temperature change. An agrivoltaic system must optimize sunlight sharing between solar panels and crops to maximize food energy production. It has been challenging to improve and analyze the performance of agrivoltaic systems due to the lack of a defined crop-specific parameter. In this work, we present a practical option to partially replace bifacial modules with semi-transparent ones, providing comparable levels of crop protection and greater climate change resilience while generating green energy and increasing land-use efficiency. The agrivoltaic system must be tailored to satisfy the needs of crops. For this purpose, a simulation model was conducted, which examined the impact of module transparency and cell layout based on light availability.


Download data is not yet available.


E. H. Adeh, J. S. Selker, and C. W. Higgins, “Remarkable agrivoltaic influence on soil moisture, micrometeorology and water-use efficiency,” PLoS ONE, vol. 13, no. 11. 2018, doi:

A. K. Pandey, V. V. Tyagi, J. A. Selvaraj, N. A. Rahim, and S. K. Tyagi, “Recent advances in solar photovoltaic systems for emerging trends and advanced applications,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 53, pp. 859–884, 2016, doi:

A. Weselek, A. Ehmann, S. Zikeli, I. Lewandowski, S. Schindele, and P. Högy, “Agrophotovoltaic systems: applications, challenges, and opportunities. A review,” Agron. Sustain. Dev., vol. 39, no. 4, 2019, doi:

S. Touil, A. Richa, M. Fizir, and B. Bingwa, “Shading effect of photovoltaic panels on horticulture crops production: a mini review,” Rev. Environ. Sci. Biotechnol., vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 281–296, 2021, doi:

R. Ayop, C. W. Tan, M. S. A. Mahmud, S. N. Syed Nasir, T. Al-Hadhrami, and A. L. Bukar, “A simplified and fast computing photovoltaic model for string simulation under partial shading condition,” Sustain. Energy Technol. Assessments, vol. 42, no. March, p. 100812, 2020, doi:

H. S. Moreira, J. Lucas de Souza Silva, M. V. Gomes dos Reis, D. de Bastos Mesquita, B. H. Kikumoto de Paula, and M. G. Villalva, “Experimental comparative study of photovoltaic models for uniform and partially shading conditions,” Renew. Energy, vol. 164, pp. 58–73, 2021, doi:

P. R. Malu, U. S. Sharma, and J. M. Pearce, “Agrivoltaic potential on grape farms in India,” Sustain. Energy Technol. Assessments, vol. 23, pp. 104–110, 2017, doi:

Z. Li, A. Yano, and H. Yoshioka, “Feasibility study of a blind-type photovoltaic roof-shade system designed for simultaneous production of crops and electricity in a greenhouse,” Appl. Energy, vol. 279, p. 115853, 2020, doi:

S. Nonhebel, “Renewable energy and food supply: Will there be enough land?,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 191–201, 2005, doi:

W. El Kolaly, W. Ma, M. Li, and M. Darwesh, “The investigation of energy production and mushroom yield in greenhouse production based on mono photovoltaic cells effect,” Renew. Energy, vol. 159, pp. 506–518, 2020, doi:

H. Dinesh and J. M. Pearce, “The potential of agrivoltaic systems,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 54, pp. 299–308, 2016, doi:

P. Santra, P. C. Pande, S. Kumar, D. Mishra, and R. K. Singh, “Agri-voltaics or solar farming: The concept of integrating solar PV based electricity generation and crop production in a single land use system,” Int. J. Renew. Energy Res., vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 694–699, 2017, doi:

G. A. Barron-Gafford et al., “Agrivoltaics provide mutual benefits across the food–energy–water nexus in drylands,” Nat. Sustain., vol. 2, no. 9, pp. 848–855, 2019, doi:

M. Cossu et al., “Agricultural sustainability estimation of the European photovoltaic greenhouses,” Eur. J. Agron., vol. 118, 2020, doi:

R. H. E. Hassanien and M. Li, “Influences of greenhouse-integrated semi-transparent photovoltaics on microclimate and lettuce growth,” Int. J. Agric. Biol. Eng., vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 11–22, 2017, doi:

R. H. E. Hassanien, M. Li, and F. Yin, “The integration of semi-transparent photovoltaics on greenhouse roof for energy and plant production,” Renew. Energy, vol. 121, pp. 377–388, 2018, doi:

S. Amaducci, X. Yin, and M. Colauzzi, “Agrivoltaic systems to optimise land use for electric energy production,” Appl. Energy, vol. 220, no. January 2018, pp. 545–561, 2018, doi:

M. H. Riaz, H. Imran, H. Alam, and M. Ashraful, “Crop-specific Optimization of Bifacial PV Arrays for Agrivoltaic Food-Energy Production,” pp. 1–9.

H. Marrou, L. Guilioni, L. Dufour, C. Dupraz, and J. Wery, “Microclimate under agrivoltaic systems: Is crop growth rate affected in the partial shade of solar panels?,” Agric. For. Meteorol., vol. 177, pp. 117–132, 2013, doi:

T. Sekiyama and A. Nagashima, “Solar sharing for both food and clean energy production: Performance of agrivoltaic systems for corn, a typical shade-intolerant crop,” Environ. - MDPI, vol. 6, no. 6, 2019, doi:

N. F. Othman et al., “Modeling of stochastic temperature and heat stress directly underneath agrivoltaic conditions with orthosiphon Stamineus Crop Cultivation,” Agronomy, vol. 10, no. 10, 2020, doi:

C. Dupraz, H. Marrou, G. Talbot, L. Dufour, A. Nogier, and Y. Ferard, “Combining solar photovoltaic panels and food crops for optimising land use: Towards new agrivoltaic schemes,” Renew. Energy, vol. 36, no. 10, pp. 2725–2732, 2011, doi:

B. Willockx, B. Herteleer, and J. Cappelle, “Combining photovoltaic modules and food crops: First agrovoltaic prototype in belgium,” Renew. Energy Power Qual. J., vol. 18, no. June, pp. 266–271, 2020, doi:

N. Strauss, J. Painter, J. Ettinger, M. N. Doutreix, A. Wonneberger, and P. Walton, “Reporting on the 2019 European Heatwaves and Climate Change: Journalists’ Attitudes, Motivations and Role Perceptions,” Journal. Pract., vol. 16, no. 2–3, pp. 462–485, 2022, doi:




How to Cite

Seyedpour Esmaeilzad, N., Gürsel Dino, İpek, Güney, D., Ersoy Yıldırım, Y., Turan, R., & Özden, T. (2024). Shading Effect of Transparent Photovoltaic Panels on Crops Underneath Agrivoltaic Systems. AgriVoltaics Conference Proceedings, 1.

Conference Proceedings Volume


Agrivoltaics Systems