Size and Dispatch Co-Optimisation of a Grid-Connected Agrivoltaic System




Agrivoltaic, Microgrid, Optimisation


Agrivoltaic systems that leverage the opportunity of integrating solar photovoltaic (PV) systems into land used for agriculture, have been shown to provide an effective platform for a mutually beneficial cooperation between energy and food. However, the mainstream literature has failed to investigate the systematic design and dispatch considerations that must be made to ensure the robust and profit-maximising operation of a grid-connected agrivoltaic system from an energy perspective subject to meeting onsite load demands, such as irrigation pumps, centre pivot systems, and cow shed pumps. This necessitates formulating a coordinated, system-level strategic design and dispatch problem that considers the localised energy system and its individual components. Accordingly, this paper introduces a novel agrivoltaic system energy planning optimisation method with an integrated dispatch scheduling framework. The proposed method enables the consideration of augmenting value streams, such as temporal energy arbitrage with the grid, especially regarding the presence of behind-the-meter stationary battery storage devices and electric agricultural vehicles’ batteries. Furthermore, the proposed method has a general crop type-independent structure. This allows for greater adaptability of the method to different types of agrivoltaic systems. The effectiveness of the proposed method in improving the economic feasibility of grid-connected agrivoltaic systems is demonstrated based on simulation results obtained from its application to a conceptual agrivoltaic system backed by stationary and mobile battery storage systems, proposed for implementation in a rural location in Aotearoa New Zealand.


Download data is not yet available.


M. Kumar, D. Haillot, and S. Gibout, “Survey and evaluation of solar technologies for agricultural greenhouse application,” Solar Energy, vol. 232, pp. 18–34, 2022, doi:

M. A. Zainol Abidin, M. N. Mahyuddin, and M. A. A. Mohd Zainuri, “Solar photovoltaic architecture and agronomic management in agrivoltaic system: A review,” Sustainability, vol. 13, no. 14, p. 7846, 2021, doi:

Y. de Jesus et al., “Applications of solar and wind renewable energy in agriculture: A review,” Science Progress, vol. 102, pp. 127–140, 2019, doi:

M. A. Al Mamun, P. Dargusch, D. Wadley, N. A. Zulkarnain, and A. A. Aziz, “A review of research on agrivoltaic systems,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 161, p. 112351, 2022, doi:

S. Neupane Bhandari, S. Schlüter, W. Kuckshinrichs, H. Schlör, R. Adamou, and R. Bhandari, “Economic Feasibility of Agrivoltaic Systems in Food-Energy Nexus Context: Modelling and a Case Study in Niger,” Agronomy, vol. 11, p. 1906, 2021, doi:

S. Amaducci, X. Yin, and M. Colauzzi, “Agrivoltaic systems to optimise land use for electric energy production,” Applied Energy, vol. 220, pp. 545–561, 2018.

A. Agostini, M. Colauzzi, and S. Amaducci, “Innovative agrivoltaic systems to produce sustainable energy: An economic and environmental assessment,” Applied Energy, vol. 281, p. 116102, doi:

P. E. Campana, B. Stridh, S. Amaducci, and M. Colauzzi, “Optimisation of vertically mounted agrivoltaic systems,” Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 325, p. 129091, 2021, doi:

M. Trommsdorff et al., “Combining food and energy production: Design of an agrivoltaic system applied in arable and vegetable farming in Germany,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 140, p. 110694, 2021.

J. Fleischmann et al., “OWEFE—open modeling framework for integrated water, energy, food, and environment systems,” Environmental Research: Infrastructure and Sustainability, vol. 3, no. 1, p. 015006, 2023.

H. Dinesh and J. M. Pearce, “The potential of agrivoltaic systems,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 54, pp. 299–308, 2016.

M. Nasser, T. F. Megahed, S. Ookawara, and H. Hassan, “Techno-economic assessment of clean hydrogen production and storage using hybrid renewable energy system of PV/Wind under different climatic conditions,” Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, vol. 52, p. 102195, 2022, doi:

S. Mohseni, R. Khalid, and A. C. Brent, “Stochastic, resilience-oriented optimal sizing of off-grid microgrids considering EV-charging demand response: An efficiency comparison of state-of-the-art metaheuristics,” Applied Energy, vol. 341, p. 121007, 2023.

T. Barrett, “NZ-made electric tractor for a boon to orchard.” Otago Daily Times. (date accessed 05/05/2023)

S. Mohseni, R. Khalid, and A. C. Brent, “Metaheuristic-based isolated microgrid sizing and uncertainty quantification considering EVs as shiftable loads,” Energy Reports, vol. 8, pp. 11288–11308, 2022, doi:

S. Mirjalili, “Moth-flame optimization algorithm: A novel nature-inspired heuristic paradigm,” Knowledge-Based Systems, vol. 89, pp.228–249, 2015.

National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA). CliFlo data-base. (date accessed: 05/05/2023)

J. Upton et al., “Energy demand on dairy farms in Ireland,”. Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 96, no. 10, pp. 6489–6498, 2013.

The Electricity Market Information: The New Zealand Electricity Authority’s wholesale database. (date accessed: 05/05/2023)




How to Cite

Mohseni, S., & Brent, A. (2024). Size and Dispatch Co-Optimisation of a Grid-Connected Agrivoltaic System . AgriVoltaics Conference Proceedings, 2.

Conference Proceedings Volume


Economics and Business Models