Execution of Multi-Perspective Declarative Process Models Using Complex Event Processing





Process Execution, Complex Event Processing, MP-Declare, Event-Driven Systems


The Internet of Things (IoT) enables continuous monitoring of phenomena based on sensing devices as well as analytics opportunities in smart environments. Complex Event Processing (CEP) comprises a set of techniques for making sense of the behavior of a monitored system by deriving higher level knowledge from lower level system events. Business Process Management (BPM) attempts to model processes and ensures that executed processes con-form with a predefined sequence. In IoT scenarios frequently a large number of events has to be analyzed in real-time to allow an instant response. While BPM reaches its limits in such situ-ations, CEP is able to analyze and process high volume streams of data in real-time. The evaluation and execution of rules and models of both paradigms are currently based on separate formalisms and are frequently implemented in heterogeneous systems. The presented paper integrates both domains by proposing an execution approach for multi-perspective declarative process process models completely based on CEP. The efficiency of the combined paradigms is validated in an implemented demonstration with simulated and real-life sensor data.



Download data is not yet available.


G. Meroni, C. D. Ciccio, and J. Mendling, “An artifact-driven approach to monitor business processes through real-world objects,” in ICSOC, vol. 10601, 2017, pp. 297–313.

P. Soffer et al., “From event streams to process models and back: Challenges and opportunities,” Information Systems, vol. 81.2019, pp. 181–200, 2019.

S. Schönig, L. Ackermann, S. Jablonski, and A. Ermer, “Iot meets BPM: a bidirectional communication architecture for iot-aware process execution,” Softw. Syst. Model., vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 1443–1459, 2020.

D. M. Goetz, “Integration of business process management and complex event processing,” 2010.

R. Bruns and J. Dunkel, Complex Event Processing. 2015, ISBN: 978-3-658-09898-8.

W. M. P. van der Aalst, M. Pesic, and H. Schonenberg, “Declarative workflows: Balancing between flexibility and support,” Comput. Sci. Res. Dev., vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 99–113, 2009.

A. Burattin et al., “Conformance checking based on multi-perspective declarative process models,” Expert Syst. Appl., vol. 65, pp. 194–211, 2016.

H. van der Aa, K. J. Balder, F. M. Maggi, and A. Nolte, “Say it in your own words: Defining declarative process models using speech recognition,” in BPM Forum, vol. 392, 2020, pp. 51–67.

C. Janiesch et al., “The internet of things meets business process management: A manifesto,” IEEE Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Magazine, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 34–44, 2020. DOI: 10.1109/MSMC.2020.3003135.

R. von Ammon, C. Emmersberger, T. Greiner, F. Springer, and C. Wolff, “Event-driven business process management,” in Fast Abstract, Second International Conference on Distributed Event-Based Systems, DEBS 2008, Rom, Juli 2008, 2008. [Online]. Available: https://epub.uni-regensburg.de/6829/.

G. Li, V. Muthusamy, and H.-A. Jacobsen, “A distributed service-oriented architecture for business process execution,” ACM Trans. Web, vol. 4, no. 1, 2010.

M. Weidlich, G. Decker, A. Großkopf, and M. Weske, “BPEL to BPMN: the myth of a straight-forward mapping,” in OTM Confederated International Conferences, vol. 5331, 2008, pp. 265–282.

“Formalizing the specification and execution of workflows using the event calculus,” Information Sciences, vol. 176, no. 15, pp. 2227–2267, 2006.

A. Paschke, “The reaction ruleml classification of the event / action / state processing and reasoning space,” CoRR, vol. abs/cs/0611047, 2006. arXiv: cs/0611047. [Online]. Available: http://arxiv.org/abs/cs/0611047.

P. Hens, M. Snoeck, G. Poels, and M. D. Backer, “Process fragmentation, distribution and execution using an event-based interaction scheme,” J. Syst. Softw., vol. 89, pp. 170–192, 2014.

M. Daum, M. Götz, and J. Domaschka, “Integrating cep and bpm: How cep realizes functional requirements of bpm applications (industry article),” in International Conference on Distributed Event-Based Systems, 2012, pp. 157–166.

S. Mandal, M. Hewelt, and M. Weske, “A framework for integrating real-world events and business processes in an iot environment,” in OTM 2017 Conferences, 2017, pp. 194–212.

M. Jergler, H.-A. Jacobsen, M. Sadoghi, R. Hull, and R. Vaculın, “Safe distribution and parallel execution of data-centric workflows over the publish/subscribe abstraction,” in ICDE, 2016, pp. 1498–1499. [19] P. Soffer, “A state-based intention driven declarative process model,” International Journal of Information System Modeling and Design, vol. 4, pp. 44–64, 2013.

F. M. Maggi, M. Montali, and U. Bhat, “Compliance monitoring of multi-perspective declarative process models,” in EDOC, 2019, pp. 151–160.

W. M. P. van der Aalst, Process Mining: Discovery, Conformance and Enhancement of Business Processes. 2011, ISBN: 3642193447.

S. Schönig, C. D. Ciccio, F. M. Maggi, and J. Mendling, “Discovery of multi-perspective declarative process models,” in ICSOC, vol. 9936, 2016, pp. 87–103.

A. Burattin, M. Cimitile, F. M. Maggi, and A. Sperduti, “Online discovery of declarative process models from event streams,” Transactions on Services Computing, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 833–846, 2015.

N. Navarin, M. Cambiaso, A. Burattin, F. M. Maggi, L. Oneto, and A. Sperduti, “Towards online discovery of data-aware declarative process models from event streams,” in IJCNN, 2020, pp. 1–8.

S. J. van Zelst, A. Bolt, M. Hassani, B. F. van Dongen, and W. M. P. van der Aalst, “Online conformance checking: Relating event streams to process models using prefixalignments,” Int. J. Data Sci. Anal., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 269–284, 2019.

E. Wu, Y. Diao, and S. Rizvi, “High-performance complex event processing over streams,” in International Conference on Management of Data6, 2006, pp. 407–418.

University of Massachusetts, SASE Home, http://sase.cs.umass.edu&sc=SUR, Online; accessed 20 December 2020. [28] J. N. Martínez Garro, P. Bazán, and F. J. Díaz, “Using bam and cep for process monitoring in cloud bpm,” Computer Science and Technology, vol. 16, no. 01, 2016.

L. Ackermann, S. Schönig, S. Petter, N. Schützenmeier, and S. Jablonski, “Execution of multi-perspective declarative process models,” in OTM Conferences, vol. 11230, 2018, pp. 154–172.