Social Media Crisis Communication Model for Building Public Resilience: A Preliminary Study

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.52825/bis.v1i.55

Keywords:

Crisis communication, Social media, Resilience, Social interaction, Crisis response

Abstract

There is an ongoing discussion about the effectiveness of social media usage on the ability of people to recover from the crisis. However, the existing social media crisis communication models could not address the dynamic feature of social media users and the crisis, respectively. Therefore, the objective of this study is to conduct a preliminary investigation of the social media crisis communication model for building public resilience. Thus, 34 items were generated from the literature concerning the crisis, crisis response, social interaction, and resilience. The items were validated by three experts via content validity index and modified kappa statistics. After passing the validation test, the instruments were pre-tested by 32 participants. The reliability of the items was analyzed using Cronbach’s alpha. Also, the model fits and mediation were examined by the regression model, and the hypotheses were independently assessed in process macro models. Based on the result obtained, each of the constructs satisfied the internal consistency requirement; crisis (0.743), crisis response (0.724), social media interaction (0.716), and resilience (0.827). Furthermore, the result also indicates that the regression model is a good fit for the data. The independent variables statistically significantly predict the dependent variable, p < 0.05. Also, the result of the process macro models indicates that all the hypotheses are independently supported.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

J. Qadir, A. Ali, R. ur Rasool, A. Zwitter, A. Sathiaseelan, and J. Crowcroft, “Crisis analytics: big data-driven crisis response,” Journal of International Humanitarian Action, vol. 1, no. 1,p. 12, 2016.

V. Mijovi´c, N. Tomaˇsevi´c, V. Janev, and S. Vraneˇs, “Event-driven decision support system for intelligent emergency management in critical infrastructures.”

M. De Brito, L. Th´ evin, C. Garbay, O. Boissier, and J. F. H¨ubner, “Supporting flexible regulation of crisis management by means of situated artificial institution,” Frontiers of Information Technology & Electronic Engineering, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 309–324, 2016.

K. Starbird, L. Palen, A. L. Hughes, and S. Vieweg, “Chatter on the red: what hazards threat reveals about the social life of microblogged information,” in Proceedings of the 2010 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work, 2010, pp. 241–250.

W. H. Organization et al., “Novel coronavirus ( 2019-ncov): situation report, 3,” 2020.

T. Onorati, P. D´ıaz, and B. Carrion, “From social networks to emergency operation centers: A semantic visualization approach,” Future Generation Computer Systems, vol. 95, pp. 829–840, 2019.

L. Palen and S. B. Liu, “Citizen communications in crisis: anticipating a future of ict-supported public participation,” in Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems, 2007, pp. 727–736.

Y. Ji and S. Kim, “Communication-mediated psychological mechanisms of chinese publics’ post-crisis corporate associations and government associations,” Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 182–194, 2019.

L. Palen, K. M. Anderson, G. Mark, J. Martin, D. Sicker, M. Palmer, and D. Grunwald, “A vision for technology-mediated support for public participation & assistance in mass emergencies & disasters,” ACM-BCS Visions of Computer Science 2010, pp. 1–12, 2010.

H. Purohit, A. Hampton, S. Bhatt, V. L. Shalin, A. P. Sheth, and J. M. Flach, “Identifying seekers and suppliers in social media communities to support crisis coordination,” Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW), vol. 23, no. 4-6, pp. 513–545, 2014.

W. T. Coombs, “Revising situational crisis communication theory,” Social media and crisis communication, vol. 1, pp. 21–37, 2017.

U. A. Bukar, M. A. Jabar, F. Sidi, R. N. H. Nor, S. Abdullah, and M. Othman, “Crisis informatics in the context of social media crisis communication: Theoretical models, taxonomy, and open issues,” IEEE Access, vol. 8, pp. 1–1, 2020.

J. Yin, A. Lampert, M. Cameron, B. Robinson, and R. Power, “Using social media to enhance emergency situation awareness,” IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 27, no. 06, pp. 52–59, 2012.

B. F. Liu, L. Austin, and Y. Jin, “How publics respond to crisis communication strategies: The interplay of information form and source,” Public Relations Review, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 345–353, 2011.

Y. Jin, A. Pang, and G. T. Cameron, “Toward a publics-driven, emotion-based conceptualization in crisis communication: Unearthing dominant emotions in multi-staged testing of the integrated crisis mapping (icm) model,” Journal of Public Relations Research, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 266–298, 2012.

C. Vignal Lambret and E. Barki, “Social media crisis management: Aligning corporate response strategies with stakeholders’ emotions online,” Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 295–305, 2018.

M. C. Stewart and B. G. Wilson, “The dynamic role of social media during hurricane sandy: An introduction of the stremii model to weather the storm of the crisis lifecycle,” Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 54, pp. 639–646, 2016.

R. Syed, “Enterprise reputation threats on social media: A case of data breach framing,” The Journal of Strategic Information Systems, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 257–274, 2019.

Y. Jin, J.-S. Lin, B. Gilbreath, and Y.-I. Lee, “Motivations, consumption emotions, and temporal orientations in social media use: A strategic approach to engaging stakeholders across platforms,” International Journal of Strategic Communication, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 115–132, 2017.

C. Möller, J. Wang, and H. T. Nguyen, “# strongerthanwinston: Tourism and crisis communication through facebook following tropical cyclones in fiji,” Tourism Management, vol. 69, pp. 272–284, 2018.

Y. Cheng, “How social media is changing crisis communication strategies: Evidence from the updated literature,” Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 58–68, 2018.

W. T. Coombs, “Attribution theory as a guide for post-crisis communication research”, Public Relations Review, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 135–139, 2007.

W. T. Coombs and J. S. Holladay, “The paracrisis: The challenges created by publicly managing crisis prevention,” Public Relations Review, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 408–415, 2012.

A. Whiting and D. Williams, “Why people use social media: a uses and gratifications approach,”Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, 2013.

Y. Li, S. Yang, S. Zhang, and W. Zhang, “Mobile social media use intention in emergencies among gen y in china: An integrative framework of gratifications, task-technology fit, and media ependency,” Telematics and Informatics, vol. 42, p. 101244, 2019.

C. Ehnis and D. Bunker, “Social media in disaster response: Queensland police service public engagement during the 2011 floods,” 2012.

M. Irons, ““we can help”: an Australian case study of post-disaster online convergence and community resilience,” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Tasmania, 2015.

C. Reuter and M.-A. Kaufhold, “Fifteen years of social media in emergencies: a retrospective review and future directions for crisis informatics,” Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 41–57, 2018.

M. Taylor, G. Wells, G. Howell, and B. Raphael, “The role of social media as psychological first aid as a support to community resilience building,” Australian Journal of Emergency Management, The, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 20–26, 2012.

C. Reuter, T. Ludwig, M.-A. Kaufhold, and T. Spielhofer, “Emergency services attitudes towards social media: A quantitative and qualitative survey across Europe,” International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, vol. 95, pp. 96–111, 2016.

M. Irons and D. Paton, “Social media and emergent groups: The impact of high functionality on community resilience,” Disaster Resilience: An Integrated Approach, 2nd ed.; Paton,D., Johnston, DM, Eds, pp. 194–211, 2017.

W. T. Coombs, “Protecting organization reputations during a crisis: The development and application of situational crisis communication theory,” Corporate reputation review, vol. 10,,no. 3, pp. 163–176, 2007.

S. P. Goggins, C. Mascaro, and G. Valetto, “Group informatics: A methodological approach and ontology for sociotechnical group research,” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, vol. 64, no. 3, pp. 516–539, 2013.

C. A. Wynd, B. Schmidt, and M. A. Schaefer, “Two quantitative approaches for estimating content validity,” Western journal of nursing research, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 508–518, 2003.

D. F. Polit and C. T. Beck, “The content validity index: are you sure you know what’s being reported? Critique and recommendations,” Research in nursing & health, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 489–497, 2006.

M. S. B. Yusoff, “Abc of content validation and content validity index calculation.” Education in Medicine Journal, vol. 11, no. 2, 2019.

D. F. Polit, C. T. Beck, and S. V. Owen, “Is the cvi an acceptable indicator of content validity? Appraisal and recommendations,” Research in nursing & health, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 459–467, 2007.

A. F. Hayes, Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. Guilford Publications, 2017.

P. E. Shrout and N. Bolger, “Mediation in experimental and nonexperimental studies: new procedures and recommendations.” Psychological methods, vol. 7, no. 4, p. 422, 2002. arenas: A communication network approach to the bird flu debate on twitter,” Public Relations Review, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 35–48, 2019.

T. G. van der Meer, P. Verhoeven, H. W. Beentjes, and R. Vliegenthart, “Communication in times of crisis: The stakeholder relationship under pressure,” Public Relations Review, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 426–440, 2017.

C. Du Plessis, “Social media crisis communication: Enhancing a discourse of renewal through dialogic content,” Public relations review, vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 829–838, 2018.

M. L. Tan, R. Prasanna, K. Stock, E. Hudson-Doyle, G. Leonard, and D. Johnston, “Mobile applications in crisis informatics literature: A systematic review,” International journal of disaster risk reduction, vol. 24, pp. 297–311, 2017.

A. Schleicher, “The impact of covid-19 on education insights from education at a glance 2020,” Retrieved from oecd. org website: https://www. oecd. org/education/the-impact-fcovid-19-on-education-insights-education-at-a-glance-2020. pdf, 2020.

Published

2021-07-02