Exploring Potential Impacts of Self-Sovereign Identity on Smart Service Systems

An Analysis of Electric Vehicle Charging Services





Self-Sovereign Identity, E-Mobility, Service Design, Smart Service Systems, Service Process


Self-sovereign identity (SSI) is a new paradigm, which puts users back in control of their own digital identity. This does not only strengthen the position of the users but implies new interaction schemes that may improve interoperability and usability. Smart services systems enable the integration of resources and activities and use smart products as boundary objects. As such systems typically involve digital interactions between multiple actors, it can be assumed that utilising SSI has a positive impact on them. To investigate how these potential improvements manifest themselves, we investigate electric vehicle charging as example of a smart service system. At the core of our conceptual analysis is the service process, which we extract from a reference model. Based on a SWOT analysis, we identify areas for transformation and derive an SSI-enabled interaction model for an electric vehicle charging service. The evaluation of the new process shows that SSI can reduce complexity of integration with partners and can provide a better customer experience through simplified registration and authentication. Moreover, SSI might even lead to the disintermediation of actors in the service system. Although SSI is still emerging, our findings underline its relevance as a mechanism to establish trust in smart service systems through the seamless and standardised integration of digital identities for humans, organisations, and things.


Download data is not yet available.


K. Cameron, “The laws of identity,” 2005. [Online]. Available: https://www.identityblog.com/stories/2005/05/13/TheLawsOfIdentity.pdf.

O. Avellaneda, A. Bachmann, A. Barbir, J. Brenan, P. Dingle, K. H. Duffy, E. Maler, D. Reed, and M. Sporny, “Decentralized identity: Where did it come from and where is it going?” IEEE Communications Standards Magazine, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 10–13, 2019, ISSN: 2471-2825. DOI: 10.1109/MCOMSTD.2019.9031542.

P. C. Bartolomeu, E. Vieira, S. M. Hosseini, and J. Ferreira, “Self-sovereign identity: Usecases, technologies, and challenges for industrial iot,” in Proceedings, 2019 24th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2019, pp. 1173–1180, ISBN: 978-1-7281-0303-7. DOI: 10.1109/ETFA.2019.8869262.

K. C. Toth and A. Anderson-Priddy, “Self-sovereign digital identity: A paradigm shift for identity,” IEEE Security & Privacy, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 17–27, 2019, ISSN: 1540-7993. DOI: 10.1109/MSEC.2018.2888782.

B. Cyphers and G. Gebhart, Behind the one-way mirror: A deep dive into the technology of corporate surveillance, Electronic Frontier Foundation, Ed., 2019. [Online]. Available: https://www.eff.org/wp/behind-the-one-way-mirror.

A. M¨uhle and A. Gr¨uner, “A survey on essential components of a self-sovereign identity,” 2018. [Online]. Available: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/326459642_A_Survey_on_Essential_Components_of_a_Self-Sovereign_Identity.

R. Soltani, U. Trang Nguyen, and A. An, “A new approach to client onboarding using self-sovereign identity and distributed ledger,” in 2018 IEEE International Conference on Internet of Things (iThings) and IEEE Green Computing and Communications (Green-Com) and IEEE Cyber, Physical and Social Computing (CPSCom) and IEEE Smart Data (SmartData), IEEE, 7/30/2018 - 8/3/2018, pp. 1129–1136, ISBN: 978-1-5386-7975-3. DOI: 10.1109/Cybermatics{textunderscore}2018.2018.00205.

D. W. Chadwick, R. Laborde, A. Oglaza, R. Venant, S. Wazan, and M. Nijjar, “Improved identity management with verifiable credentials and fido,” IEEE Communications Standards Magazine, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 14–20, 2019, ISSN: 2471-2825. DOI: 10.1109/MCOMSTD.001.1900020.

K. Wittek, L. Lazzati, D. Bothe, A.-J. Sinnaeve, and N. Pohlmann, “An ssi based system for incentivized and self-determined customer-to-business data sharing in a local economy

context,” in 2020 IEEE European Technology and Engineering Management Summit (ETEMS), IEEE, 2020, pp. 1–5, ISBN: 978-1-7281-0903-9. DOI: 10.1109/E- TEMS46250.2020.9111805.

A. Stasis, N. Triantafyllou, P. Georgakopoulos, R. L. Armitt, and P. Kavassalis, “Designing an academic electronic identity management system for student mobility using eidas eid and self-sovereign identity technologies,” in 26th Annual EUNIS Congress, 2020.

R. Karatas and I. Sertkaya, “Self sovereign identity based e-petition scheme,” International Journal of Information Security Science, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 213–229, 2020.

R. B. Gans, J. Ubacht, and M. Janssen, “Self-sovereign identities for fighting the impact of covid-19 pandemic,” Digital Government: Research and Practice, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 1–4, 2021, ISSN: 2691-199X. DOI: 10.1145/3429629.

D. Beverungen, O. Müller, M. Matzner, J. Mendling, and J. Vom Brocke, “Conceptualizing smart service systems,” Electronic Markets, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 7–18, 2019, ISSN: 1019-6781. DOI: 10.1007/s12525-017-0270-5.

L. Gonc¸alves, L. Patr´ıcio, J. Grenha Teixeira, and N. V. W¨underlich, “Understanding the customer experience with smart services,” Journal of Service Management, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 723–744, 2020, ISSN: 1757-5818. DOI: 10.1108/JOSM-11-2019-0349.

C. Porter, “Design shortcomings in e-service enrolment processes,” International Journal of E-Services and Mobile Applications, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 1–18, 2018, ISSN: 1941-627X. DOI: 10.4018/IJESMA.2018070101.

N. Masuch, E. Eryilmaz, T. K¨ uster, U. Pletat, J. F¨ahndrich, T. Theodoropoulos, M. Koukovini, N. S. Hadjidimitriou, and N. Dellas, “Decentralized service platform for interoperable electro-mobility services throughout europe,” in Towards User-Centric Transport in Europe 2: Enablers of Inclusive, Seamless and Sustainable Mobility, B. M¨ uller and G. Meyer, Eds., Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2020, pp. 184–199, ISBN: 978-3-030-38028-1. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-38028-1{textunderscore}13.

B. Kirpes, P. Danner, R. Basmadjian, H. d. Meer, and C. Becker, “E-mobility systems architecture: A model-based framework for managing complexity and interoperability,” Energy Informatics, vol. 2, no. 1, p. 28, 2019. DOI: 10.1186/s42162-019-0072-4.

D. van Bokkem, R. Hageman, G. Koning, L. Nguyen, and N. Zarin, “Self-sovereign identity solutions: The necessity of blockchain technology,” arXiv e-prints, arXiv:1904.12816, 2019. [Online]. Available: https://arxiv.org/pdf/1904.12816v1.pdf.

M. Sporny, D. Longley, and D. Chadwick, Verifiable credentials data model 1.0: Expressing verifiable information on the web, 2020. [Online]. Available: https://www.w3.org/TR/vc-data-model/.

D. Reed, M. Sporny, D. Longley, C. Allen, R. Grant, M. Sabadello, and J. Holt, Decentralized identifiers (dids) v1.0: Core architecture, data model, and representations, 2020. [Online]. Available: https://www.w3.org/TR/did-core/.

EVRoaming Foundation, Ocpi 2.2: Open charge point interface, 12.06.2020. [Online]. Available: https://evroaming.org/app/uploads/2020/06/OCPI-2.2-d2.pdf.

J. Ratej, B. Mehle, and M. Kocbek, “Global service provider for electric vehicle roaming,” in 2013 World Electric Vehicle Symposium and Exhibition (EVS27), Nov. 2013, pp. 1–11. DOI: 10.1109/EVS.2013.6914941.

C. Allen, The path to self-sovereign identity, 2016. [Online]. Available: http://www.lifewithalacrity.com/2016/04/the-path-to-self-soverereign-identity.html.

J. Anke, J. P¨oppelbuß, and R. Alt, “It takes more than two to tango: Inter-organizational collaboration in smart service systems engineering,” Schmalenbach Business Review, vol. 72, no. 4, pp. 599–634, 2020. DOI: 10.1007/s41464-020-00101-2.