Techno-Economic Analysis of the Heating System Robustness




Techno-Economic Analysis, Efficient Building, System Robustness


A techno-economic analysis of different heating systems of a multi-apartment building is performed. The final energy savings and the economic benefit under different boundary conditions are investigated for a Passive House that has been realized and monitored in Innsbruck, Austria. Eight different system combinations are considered, varying the heat generation (direct electric (as-built), air/water heat pump (HP) and groundwater HP) as well as the size of the photovoltaic (PV) system. The systems are investigated with a building model with two different parameterizations: the pre-design stage and the model adapted to the monitored boundary conditions (BC: climate and user behaviour) and monitored energy consumption. The monitoring of the first two years of operation revealed a significantly higher space heating demand (29 kWh/(m2a) compared to 8 kWh/(m2a)). The most robust system (i.e. the system that performs best independent of the BC) for primary energy optimization is identified as an air-source heat pump with a 32 kWp photovoltaic system. This system also allows economic savings in case of high heating demand (adapted building model) and slightly higher costs in case of low heating demand (pre-design model). The groundwater-source HP is cost-effective only in scenarios with high heating demand due to significant investment and installation costs. Monthly primary energy factors are used to account for seasonal effects of the energy demand, providing an assessment of system efficiency that accounts for the so-called winter gap.


Download data is not yet available.


Eurostat, Statistic Explained, Energy statistics – an overview,, accessed on 31.01.2024

Eurostat, Statistic Explained, Energy consumption in households,, accessed on 31.01.2024

Statistics Austria, The Information Manager,, accessed on 31.01.2024

Energy, European Commission. Energy, Climate Change, Environment. Energy Performance of Buildings Directive, accessed on 01.02.2024

D. Johnston, M. Siddall, O. Ottinger, S. Peper, S., W. Feist. Are the energy savings of the passive house standard reliable? A review of the as-built thermal and space heating performance of passive house dwellings from 1990 to 2018. Energy Efficiency, 13, 1605-1631.

S. Peper, W. Feist. (2015). Energy efficiency of the Passive House Standard: expectations confirmed by measurements in practice. Passive House Institute: Darmstadt, Germany.

J. Schnieders, A. Hermelink, CEPHEUS results: measurements and occupants’ satisfaction provide evidence for Passive Houses being an option for sustainable building, Energy Policy, Volume 34, Issue 2, 2006, Pages 151-171, ISSN 0301-4215,

M. Grøn Bjørneboe, S. Svendsen, A. Heller, Evaluation of the renovation of a Danish single-family house based on measurements, Energy and Buildings, Volume 150, 2017, Pages 189-199, ISSN 0378-7788,

L. Tronchin, M. Manfren, P. AB. James, Linking design and operation performance analysis through model calibration: Parametric assessment on a Passive House building, Energy, Volume 165, Part A, 2018, Pages 26-40, ISSN 0360-5442,

E. Venturi, F. Ochs, G. Dermentzis, Identifying the influence of user behaviour on building energy consumption based on model-based analysis of in-situ monitoring data, Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 64, 2023, 105717, ISSN 2352-7102,

W. Feist, R. Pfluger, B. Kaufmann, O. Kah, J. Schneiders, Passive House Planning Package 2007, 1 (2007) 7. PHPP 2007 Demo/Contents_Manual.pdf.

IEA SHC Task56, Factsheet PHPP sheet for HP monthly calculation and PV self consumption

D. Słyś, S. Kordana, Financial analysis of the implementation of a Drain Water Heat Recovery unit in residential housing, Energy and Buildings, Volume 71, 2014, Pages 1-11, ISSN 0378-7788,

R. Fedrizzi, C. Dipasquale, A. Bellini, M. Gustafsson, C. Bales, F. Ochs, G. Dermentzis, R. Nouvel. D6.3a - Performance of the Studied Systemic Renovation Packages – Method. iNSPiRe Development of Systemic Packages for Deep Energy Renovation of Residential and Tertiary Buildings including Envelope and Systems. 2015.

OIB-Richtlinie 6. OIB-RL 6, Energieeinsparung und Wärmeschutz, 2023

F. Ochs and G. Dermentzis, "Evaluation of Efficiency and Renewable Energy Measures Considering the Future Energy Mix" (2018). International Building Physics Conference 2018. 3.




How to Cite

Venturi, E., Dermentzis, G., Magni, M., & Ochs, F. (2024). Techno-Economic Analysis of the Heating System Robustness. International Sustainable Energy Conference - Proceedings, 1.

Conference Proceedings Volume


Heat Pumping Technologies and System Integration