Surface Examination of Structure Loss in N-Type Czochralski Silicon Ingots




Silicon, Czochralski, Defects, Surface-Examination


In principle, growing a dislocation-free Czochralski silicon ingot is possible if the growth process is kept stable and below the critical resolved shear stress value. However, in practice, a considerable proportion of the Si ingots are remelted due to the generation of dislocations or the so-called structure loss. The assessment of the failed ingots is a crucial step toward higher yield. However, the characterization of Si ingots is challenging due to their high brittleness and the high concentration of dislocations related to slip. In this work, we develop a non-destructive method to investigate the ingots that have experienced structure loss and reveal the root causes of this failure. Many characteristic features have been found on the surface of Czochralski silicon ingots. Based on these features, the ingots are classified into seven major groups that could be related to the main causes of the structure loss. Furthermore, the temperature gradient of several ingots is revealed by careful measurements of the growth ridges’ widths of these ingots. The results show that most of the failed ingots experience low-temperature gradients before the dislocation generation which agrees with the previous results. Three ingots have a clear particle hit on the surface, which caused an immediate transition to a multi-crystalline silicon structure. Particles are found on atomically smooth and rough interfaces, growth ridges, and surfaces in between. The surface examination method is a promising, fast, low-cost, and non-destructive technique that can be used to identify the most critical factors of structure loss in industrial ingots.


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How to Cite

Hendawi, R., Stokkan , G., Øvrelid, E., & Di Sabatino, M. (2024). Surface Examination of Structure Loss in N-Type Czochralski Silicon Ingots. SiliconPV Conference Proceedings, 1.

Conference Proceedings Volume


Silicon Material and Defect Engineering