Large Scale 3D Deposition of Thermoplastic Starch in Architecture




thermoplastic starch, 3d printing, biopolymers


The following research synthesizes biopolymers with digital fabrication tools, such as robotic 3D printing, to complement existing research on reducing the amount of concrete used in buildings. It investigates bio-based and biodegradable polymers for concrete formworks. The climate crisis challenges architects and designers to explore alternative opportunities for sustainable fabrication processes. Biopolymers have emerged as a potential material to replace petroleum-based plastics used in the built environment. This research aims to rethink the materials used in the construction of buildings and suggests introducing bio-based and biodegradable materials in architecture.


Download data is not yet available.


Geyer, Roland, Jenna R. Jambeck, and Kara Lavender Law (2017) “Production, Use, and Fate of All Plastics Ever Made”. Science Advances 3/7: 25–29. DOI:

Häkkinen, Tarja, Matti Kuittinen, and Sirje Vares (2019) “Plastics in Buildings: A Study of Finnish Blocks of Flats and Daycare Centres”.

Mostafavi, Sina, Benjamin N. Kemper, and Chong Du (2019) “Materializing Hybridity in Architecture: Design to Robotic Production of Multi-Materiality in Multiple Scales”. Architectural Science Review 62/5: 424–37. DOI:

Peters, Brian (2014) “Additive Formwork 3D Printed Flexible Formwork”. ACADIA 2014 - Design Agency: Proceedings of the 34th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture 2014/Octob: 517–22. DOI:

Jipa, Andrei, Mathias Bernhard, and Benjamin Dillenburger (2018) “Submillimetre Formwork: 3D-Printed Plastic Formwork for Concrete Elements”. 2017 TxA Emerging Design + Technology: 70–79.

Leschok, Matthias, and Benjamin Dillenburger (2019) “Dissolvable 3DP Formwork”. ACADIA Ubiquity and Autonomy: 188–97. DOI:

Goodall, Chris (2011) “Bioplastics: An Important Component of Global Sustainability”. Biome Bioplastics - White Paper September 2011: 11.

Jamshidian, Majid, et al. (2010) “Poly-Lactic Acid: Production, Applications, Nano-composites, and Release Studies”. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 9/5: 552–71. DOI:

Morão, Ana, and François de Bie (2019) “Life Cycle Impact Assessment of Polylactic Acid (PLA) Produced from Sugarcane in Thailand”. Journal of Polymers and the Envi-ronment 27/11: 2523–39. DOI:

Kale, Gaurav et al. (2007) “Compostability of Bioplastic Packaging Materials: An Overview”. Macromolecular Bioscience 7/3: 255–77. DOI:

Teixeira, Stefanie et al. (2021) “Towards Controlled Degradation of Poly(Lactic) Acid in Technical Applications”. C - Journal of Carbon Research 7/2: 42. DOI:

Madhavan Nampoothiri, K., Nimisha Rajendran Nair, and Rojan Pappy John (2010) “An Overview of the Recent Developments in Polylactide (PLA) Research”. Biore-source Technology 101/22: 8493–8501. DOI:

Khan, Bahram, et al. (2017) “Thermoplastic Starch: A Possible Biodegradable Food Packaging Material—A Review”. Journal of Food Process Engineering 40/3. DOI:

Carvalho, Antonio José Felix de, and Eliane Trovatti (2016) “Biomedical Applications for Thermoplastic Starch”. Biodegradable and Biobased Polymers for Environmental and Biomedical Applications: 1–23. DOI:

Saiah, Redouan, Richard Gattin, and P.A. Sreekumar (2012) “Properties and Biodeg-radation Nature of Thermoplastic Starch”. Thermoplastic Elastomers, June: 57–78. DOI:




How to Cite

Kemper, B. N. (2022). Bio-Formwork: Large Scale 3D Deposition of Thermoplastic Starch in Architecture. Open Conference Proceedings, 2, 65–70.

Conference Proceedings Volume


Beiträge zur / Contributions to the 22. Nachwuchswissenschaftler*innenkonferenz (NWK)